Due to its colonial past, Ireland has often been described as an exceptional state in Western Europe.
The discourse of Irish exceptionalism also suggests a smoother path of integration for Muslim migrants compared to other Western European countries.
It was born of a lengthy battle between the state and the Roman Catholic Church at the end of the 19th century.
But as jihadist terrorists have struck repeatedly in France, and as social tensions have mounted, political leaders on both left and right have used the principle to constrain Muslims.
Topics included the growing gap between life and doctrine; the future of Europe; and the future of humanity as a whole.France's interior minister convened Muslim leaders Monday to discuss a French-style Islam that honors the nation's secular values, a task given new urgency after deep divisions surfaced over burkini bans in 30 French beach towns and after terror attacks that also stigmatized Muslims.A high court struck down the burkini bans Friday, but the high-pitched debate that quickly seeped into France's political sphere revealed raw tensions between the secular establishment and sectors of France's estimated 5 million Muslims, the largest Muslim population in Western Europe.The daylong conference bringing together Muslim leaders, civil society and others is the latest step in creating an "Islam of France" that respects French secular values.Muslims must be "committed to a total defense of the Republic in the face of terrorism, in the face of Salafism," Cazeneuve told the paper, adding French values must "transcend all others."In France, the interior minister is charged with maintaining good relations with religious denominations.
From the outside, with its high minarets and bulbous Mughal-style dome, the Wilmersdorf mosque, located on Brienner Street in southwest Berlin, looks much the same as it did when it was built in the 1920s.