Hardened fossils are often found in layers of sedimentary rock and along the beds of rivers that flow through them.
See also index fossil, microfossil, trace fossil.fossilize verb The evidence in rock of the presence of a plant or an animal from an earlier geological period.
The oldest fossils (of bacteria) are 3.8 billion years old.
Real Science Radio hosts Bob Enyart and Fred Williams had predicted on air and in writing at rsr.org/predictions that: - Dinosaur soft tissue will be found not only in rare circumstances, but rather easily, i.e., when looked for. The journal reported original tissue in six of eight dinosaur bones investigated, leading to the conclusion that "preservation is more common than previously thought." And: - Original dinosaur and other biological tissue will be found largely independent of the claimed age of the fossil.
Carbon-14 cannot be used to date biological artifacts of organisms that did not get their carbon dioxide from the air.
This rules out carbon dating for most aquatic organisms, because they often obtain at least some of their carbon from dissolved carbonate rock.
Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50,000 years old.
This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils (like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old).
This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. The half-life of carbon-14 is only 5,730 years, so carbon-14 dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50,000 years old.
"beard worms" that are allegedly 530 million years old!
(See 60 similar discoveries.) Here, RSR presents the scientific journals reporting, the kinds of biological material found so far, and the dinosaurs yielding up these exciting discoveries: Scientific Journals: , and others below in our chronological catalog, "the web's most complete list of dinosaur soft tissue discoveries," as published in many leading journals, according to a co-author of one of those papers.
Being ancient, the C-14 content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in "zeroing" laboratory instruments. Hovind would take the trouble to do a little reading from something other than creationist publications he would not make such an outrageous statement.
It's just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise. I believe he has confused the use of index fossils with evolution.
(The principle of superposition was recognized as early as 1669 by Steno.) Reverend Benjamin Richardson and Reverend Joseph Townsend were a couple of early geologists involved in this work. Obviously, even Lyell was not pushing evolution at the time.