Example: an "accessible van" means that there is a wheel chair lift and handrails so that persons with disabilities may be able to get in and out of the van.
This is usually a change that helps a student work around his or her disability.
It includes tools and techniques that help students keep up with a standard workload that is the same as their peers. He or she may be provided with a sign language interpreter during class.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a model of mental health care.
ACT services are available to a person with serious mental health conditions as needed and on a regular basis in the community.
Members of an ACT team are multidisciplinary and provide service ranging from medication management to rehabilitation support.
When an individual or business has a fairly clear idea of the desired outcome, a coaching partnership can be a useful tool for developing a strategy for how to achieve that outcome with greater ease.
Since coaching is a partnership, ask yourself whether collaboration, other viewpoints, and new perspectives are valued.
The response is an integral part of the listening process and can be critical to the success of a negotiation or mediation. 'You were the only one who cared about what we were saying.'"Though useful for everyone involved in a conflict, the ability and willingness to listen with empathy is often what sets the mediator apart from others involved in the conflict. Community Relations Service, recalls a highly charged community race-related conflict he responded to more than 30 years ago when he was a mediator in the agency's Mid-Atlantic office.Among its benefits, empathic listening "When the final session ended, the leader of the community organization bolted across the floor, clasped the mediator's hand and thanked him for being 'different from the others.' 'How was I different? Even when the conflict is not resolved during mediation, the listening process can have a profound impact on the parties. It involved the construction of a highway that would physically divide a community centered around a public housing project.After weeks of protest activity, the parties agreed to mediation.In order to understand the specific type of anxiety that learners experience in a foreign language classroom, it is important to first consider anxiety in general terms. 13) distinguished anxiety from fear by pointing out that although anxiety and fear are both "unpleasant emotional reactions to the stimulus conditions perceived as threatening," fear is usually derived from a "real, objective danger in the external environment" while the threatening stimulus of anxiety may not be known. 41) defined anxiety as the "subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system." More specifically, Morris, David, & Hutchings (1981, cited in Wilson, 2006, p. Trait anxiety is "an individual's likelihood of becoming anxious in any situation" (Spielberger, 1983, cited in Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. As trait anxiety is a relatively stable personality characteristic, a person who is trait anxious would probably become anxious in many different kinds of situations, "more frequently or more intensely than most people do" (Woodrow, 2006, p. This approach to anxiety research has been criticized in that the interpretation of trait anxiety would be meaningless without being considered "in interaction with situations" because a particular situation may be perceived as anxiety-provoking by some but not by others although those people may have similar trait anxiety scores (Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. State anxiety, in contrast to the stable nature of trait anxiety, is momentary and thus not an enduring characteristic of an individual's personality.As a psychological construct, anxiety is described as "a state of apprehension, a vague fear that is only indirectly associated with an object" (Scovel, 1991, cited in Tanveer, 2007, p. 41) claimed that general anxiety consists of two components: "worry and emotionality." Worry or "cognitive anxiety" refers to "negative expectations and cognitive concerns about oneself, the situation at hand, and possible consequences," and emotionality or "somatic anxiety" concerns "one's perceptions of the physiological-affective elements of the anxiety experience, which are indications of autonomic arousal and unpleasant feeling states, such as nervousness, upset stomach, pounding heart, sweating, and tension" (Morris, David, & Hutchings, 1981, cited in Wilson, 2006, p. It is the apprehension that is experienced at a particular moment in time (Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. In other words, it is a transient anxiety, an unpleasant emotional temporary state, a response to a particular anxiety-provoking stimulus such as an important test (Spielberger, 1983, cited in Wang, 2005, p.13, and cited in Tanveer, 2007, p. The higher the level of trait anxiety an individual possess, the higher the level of state anxiety he or she may experience in stressful situations (Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. The state-anxiety approach to anxiety research has been criticized for asking the question "Are you nervous now? ;" in other words, it does not the subjects to ascribe their anxiety experience to any particular source (Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. Situation-specific anxiety re¬‚ects a trait anxiety that recurs consistently over time within a given situation (Mac Intyre & Gardner, 1991, p. 2) proposed that the three categories of anxiety can be identified on a continuum from stability to transience, with trait anxiety related to a generally stable predisposition to be anxious across situations on one end, state anxiety related to a temporary unpleasant emotional state on the other, and situational-specific anxiety related to the probability of becoming anxious in particular situations in the middle of the continuum. 90), situation-specific anxiety can be considered as trait anxiety, which is limited to a specific context. 128), foreign language anxiety is "a distinct complex of self-perceptions, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process." Other researchers also proposed similar definitions. 16) perceived of foreign language anxiety as a situation-specific anxiety students experience in the classroom, which is characterized by "negative self-centered thoughts, feelings of inadequacy, fear of failure, and emotional reactions." In a similar vein, Mac Intyre and Gardner (1994, cited in Wang, 2005, p.
"Quite frequently the strong emotional background of an issue and the personalities involved may be more significant than the facts." He suggested that mediators apply "sympathetic understanding," which in reality is empathic listening.